Requires Photography

Fragment of a shawabty of King Taharqa

Nubian
Napatan Period, reign of Taharqa
690–664 B.C.


Findspot: Nubia (Sudan), Nuri, Pyramid 1, U. in floor debris towards E2

Dimensions

Overall: Head is 6 x 5.8 cm (2 3/8 x 2 5/16 in.). Originally the piece would be under 23 cms.

Accession Number

16-12-169

Medium or Technique

Gray serpentinite

Not On View

Collections

The Ancient World

Classifications

Shawabties and shawabty boxes

This is a head of a shawabty belonging to King Taharqa. The figure wears the king’s nemes headdress with pleated lappets and uraeus and has a long beard. Most of the back of the wig is missing and the uraeus and beard are chipped. A small diagonal crack appears from the upper left to the lower right of the face. There is no back pillar or base on this figure.

The ancient Nubians included shawabtys in their tombs only in the Napatan Period, about 750–270 B.C. These funerary figurines are based on Egyptian shawabtys, but differ from them in many features of their iconography. For instance, the known Nubian examples are only from royal tombs. Also, they have unique texts, implements, poses and are known to have the largest number of shawabtys included in one tomb. Their function, it is assumed, was the same as that of the Egyptian shawabty, namely to magically animate in the Afterlife in order to act as a proxy for the deceased when called upon to tend to field labor or other tasks. This expressed purpose was sometimes written on the shawabty itself in the form of a “Shawabty Spell,” of which versions of various lengths are known. Shorter shawabty inscriptions could also just identify the deceased by name and, when applicable, title(s). However, many shawabtys carry no text at all. The ideal number of such figurines to include in a tomb or burial seems to have varied during different time periods.

Provenance

From Nubia (Sudan), Nuri, Pyramid 1 (tomb of Taharqa) U. in floor debris towards E2. 1917: excavated by the Harvard University–Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition; assigned to the MFA in the division of finds by the government of the Sudan.

Credit Line

Harvard University–Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition