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Inscribed shawabty fragment

Nubian
Napatan Period, reign of Senkamanisken
643–623 B.C.


Findspot: Nubia (Sudan), Nuri, Found in Pyramid 37, but originally in Pyramid 3

Dimensions

Overall: 3.6 x 2.4 cm (1 7/16 x 15/16 in.)

Accession Number

17-3-28

Medium or Technique

Faience

Not On View

Collections

The Ancient World

Classifications

Shawabties and shawabty boxes

Shawabty torso and back pillar fragment with horizontal registers containing incised hieroglyphs. The text has black paint in the incised lines.

The ancient Nubians included shawabtys in their tombs only in the Napatan Period, about 750–270 B.C. These funerary figurines are based on Egyptian shawabtys, but differ from them in many features of their iconography. For instance, the known Nubian examples are only from royal tombs. Also, they have unique texts, implements, poses and are known to have the largest number of shawabtys included in one tomb. Their function, it is assumed, was the same as that of the Egyptian shawabty, namely to magically animate in the Afterlife in order to act as a proxy for the deceased when called upon to tend to field labor or other tasks. This expressed purpose was sometimes written on the shawabty itself in the form of a “Shawabty Spell,” of which versions of various lengths are known. Shorter shawabty inscriptions could also just identify the deceased by name and, when applicable, title(s). However, many shawabtys carry no text at all. The ideal number of such figurines to include in a tomb or burial seems to have varied during different time periods.

Provenance

From Nuri, found in Pyramid 37 Room A, but originally from Pyramid 3 (tomb of Senkamanisken). 1917: excavated by the Harvard University–Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition; assigned to the MFA in the division of finds by the government of Sudan.

Credit Line

Harvard University—Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition