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Shawabty fragments

Nubian
Napatan Period
750–270 B.C.


Findspot: Nubia (Sudan), Nuri, Intrusive in Nu 34

Dimensions

Overall: 3 x 2 cm (1 3/16 x 13/16 in.)

Accession Number

18-2-54

Medium or Technique

Faience

Not On View

Collections

The Ancient World

Classifications

Shawabties and shawabty boxes

This object consists of shawabty fragments of unidentified kings or queens. It includes one head fragment, one leg and foot fragment, and one small chip. Although found in Nu 34, these fragments do not match other shawabtys from Nu 34 and are intrusive.

The ancient Nubians included shawabtys in their tombs only in the Napatan Period, about 750–270 B.C. These funerary figurines are based on Egyptian shawabtys, but differ from them in many features of their iconography. For instance, the known Nubian examples are only from royal tombs. Also, they have unique texts, implements, poses and are known to have the largest number of shawabtys included in one tomb. Their function, it is assumed, was the same as that of the Egyptian shawabty, namely to magically animate in the Afterlife in order to act as a proxy for the deceased when called upon to tend to field labor or other tasks. This expressed purpose was sometimes written on the shawabty itself in the form of a “Shawabty Spell,” of which versions of various lengths are known. Shorter shawabty inscriptions could also just identify the deceased by name and, when applicable, title(s). However, many shawabtys carry no text at all. The ideal number of such figurines to include in a tomb or burial seems to have varied during different time periods.

Provenance

From Nubia (Sudan) Nuri, found in Pyramid 34 (tomb of Henutirdis) room A but is intrusive. 1918: excavated by the Harvard University-Museum of Fine Arts Expedition; assigned to the MFA by the government of the Sudan.

Credit Line

Harvard University—Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition