Shawabty of an unidentified queen
Napatan Period, reign of Tanwetamani
Findspot: Nubia (Sudan), Nuri, Pyramid 80
Overall: 5.8 x 2 x 0.9 cm (2 5/16 x 13/16 x 3/8 in.)
Medium or Technique
Not On View
This is a shawabty belonging to an unidentified queen. The female figure wears a tripartite wig. The shawabty is uninscribed. This mummiform shape does not have a back pillar or base. Here the hands are opposed and the arms are not crossed. The figure holds a hoe in the left hand that rests on the left shoulder, but the implements are indistinct and no seed bag is visible on the back. “N.M. 10” is written in black ink on the back of the figure. The object is encrusted in mud and is very worn. The mold seam on the right leg is poorly trimmed.
The ancient Nubians included shawabtys in their tombs only in the Napatan Period, about 750–270 B.C. These funerary figurines are based on Egyptian shawabtys, but differ from them in many features of their iconography. For instance, the known Nubian examples are only from royal tombs. Also, they have unique texts, implements, poses and are known to have the largest number of shawabtys included in one tomb. Their function, it is assumed, was the same as that of the Egyptian shawabty, namely to magically animate in the Afterlife in order to act as a proxy for the deceased when called upon to tend to field labor or other tasks. This expressed purpose was sometimes written on the shawabty itself in the form of a “Shawabty Spell,” of which versions of various lengths are known. Shorter shawabty inscriptions could also just identify the deceased by name and, when applicable, title(s). However, many shawabtys carry no text at all. The ideal number of such figurines to include in a tomb or burial seems to have varied during different time periods.
From Nuri, Pyramid 80 (tomb of unidentified queen). 1918: excavated by the Harvard University–Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition; assigned to the MFA in the division of finds by the government of Sudan.
Harvard University—Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition