Requires Photography

Shawabty of an unidentified queen

Nubian
Napatan Period, reign of Shabaka
712–698 B.C.


Findspot: Nubia (Sudan), el-Kurru, Pyramid 62

Dimensions

Overall Smallest: 0.1 cm (1/16 in.) Overall Largest: 4.2 cm (1 5/8 in.)

Accession Number

21.13679

Medium or Technique

Faience

Not On View

Collections

The Ancient World

Classifications

Shawabties and shawabty boxes

These are seventy-three fragments of shawabtys of an unidentified queen. There are one head, four torso, twenty-five legs, eleven legs and foot of which five are broken in two pieces, eleven foot and sixteen miscellaneous fragments. These are all type a fragments which are mummiform with a lappet wig and a beard cut off. No hands or implements are shown.

The ancient Nubians included shawabtys in their tombs only in the Napatan Period, about 750–270 B.C. These funerary figurines are based on Egyptian shawabtys, but differ from them in many features of their iconography. For instance, the known Nubian examples are only from royal tombs. Also, they have unique texts, implements, poses and are known to have the largest number of shawabtys included in one tomb. Their function, it is assumed, was the same as that of the Egyptian shawabty, namely to magically animate in the Afterlife in order to act as a proxy for the deceased when called upon to tend to field labor or other tasks. This expressed purpose was sometimes written on the shawabty itself in the form of a “Shawabty Spell,” of which versions of various lengths are known. Shorter shawabty inscriptions could also just identify the deceased by name and, when applicable, title(s). However, many shawabtys carry no text at all. The ideal number of such figurines to include in a tomb or burial seems to have varied during different time periods.

Provenance

From Nubia (Sudan), el-Kurru, Ku. 62 (tomb of Queen?). 1919: excavated by the Harvard University–Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition; assigned to the MFA in the division of finds by the government of the Sudan.

Credit Line

Harvard University—Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition