Requires Photography

Shawabty of King Basakheren

Nubian
Napatan Period, reign of Basakheren
405–404 B.C.


Findspot: Nubia (Sudan), Nuri, Pyramid

Dimensions

Overall: 12.8 cm (5 1/16 in.)

Accession Number

21.14377

Medium or Technique

Faience

Not On View

Collections

The Ancient World

Classifications

Shawabties and shawabty boxes

This is a shawabty belonging to King Basakheren. The figure wears the king’s nemes headdress with uraeus and has a long beard. There is one unframed column of incised text on the front of the figure.The object was broken in four pieces and is not mended. The arms are not crossed, the hands are positioned right above left. One hoe is held in the left hand resting on the left shoulder and the right hand holds a cord to a small bag slung over the right shoulder. The object is very worn, the feet and most of the headdress are missing. There is also no back pillar.

The ancient Nubians included shawabtys in their tombs only in the Napatan Period, about 750–270 B.C. These funerary figurines are based on Egyptian shawabtys, but differ from them in many features of their iconography. For instance, the known Nubian examples are only from royal tombs. Also, they have unique texts, implements, poses and are known to have the largest number of shawabtys included in one tomb. Their function, it is assumed, was the same as that of the Egyptian shawabty, namely to magically animate in the Afterlife in order to act as a proxy for the deceased when called upon to tend to field labor or other tasks. This expressed purpose was sometimes written on the shawabty itself in the form of a “Shawabty Spell,” of which versions of various lengths are known. Shorter shawabty inscriptions could also just identify the deceased by name and, when applicable, title(s). However, many shawabtys carry no text at all. The ideal number of such figurines to include in a tomb or burial seems to have varied during different time periods.

Provenance

From Nubia (Sudan), Nuri 17, Pyramid 17 (tomb of Basakheren), Debris in Room B. 1917: excavated by the Harvard University–Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition; assigned to the MFA in the division of finds by the government of the Sudan.

Credit Line

Harvard University—Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition