Requires Photography

Shawabty of King Shebitka

Nubian
Napatan Period, reign of Shebitka
698–690 B.C.


Findspot: Nubia (Sudan), el-Kurru, Pyramid 18

Dimensions

Overall: 4.6 cm (1 13/16 in.)

Accession Number

21.13159

Medium or Technique

Faience

Not On View

Collections

The Ancient World

Classifications

Shawabties and shawabty boxes

This is a shawabty belonging to King Shebitka. The male figure wears a tripartite wig and has a long beard. Although no text is visible here, most shawabtys of King Shebitka have one unframed column of painted text down the front of the figure, when legible the text reads ‘Osiris, the king of Upper and Lower Egypt, Shebitka.’ This mummiform shape does not have a back pillar. No hands or implements are depicted. The beard is painted black. The object is missing below the torso. Complete shawabtys of this type have no base.

The ancient Nubians included shawabtys in their tombs only in the Napatan Period, about 750–270 B.C. These funerary figurines are based on Egyptian shawabtys, but differ from them in many features of their iconography. For instance, the known Nubian examples are only from royal tombs. Also, they have unique texts, implements, poses and are known to have the largest number of shawabtys included in one tomb. Their function, it is assumed, was the same as that of the Egyptian shawabty, namely to magically animate in the Afterlife in order to act as a proxy for the deceased when called upon to tend to field labor or other tasks. This expressed purpose was sometimes written on the shawabty itself in the form of a “Shawabty Spell,” of which versions of various lengths are known. Shorter shawabty inscriptions could also just identify the deceased by name and, when applicable, title(s). However, many shawabtys carry no text at all. The ideal number of such figurines to include in a tomb or burial seems to have varied during different time periods.

Provenance

From Nubia (Sudan), el-Kurru, Pyramid 18 (tomb of Shebitka).1919: excavated by the Harvard University–Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition; assigned to the MFA in the division of finds by the government of the Sudan.

Credit Line

Harvard University—Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition