Shawabty of King Taharqa
Napatan Period, reign of Taharqa
Findspot: Nubia (Sudan), Nuri, Pyramid 1, A I 6
Overall: 21.3 x 8 cm (8 3/8 x 3 1/8 in.)
Medium or Technique
Red-brown serpentinized rock
Not On View
This is a shawabty belonging to King Taharqa. The figure wears a bulging bag (khat) headdress with uraeus and has a long beard. There are nine horizontal lines of incised unframed text on the front of body, recording a version of the ‘Shawabty Spell’ for the king. It does not extend to the back of the figure. This mummiform shape does not have a back pillar or base. Here the hands are opposed resting on the chest. In addition, a djed-pillar (hieroglyph for ‘stability’) is held in the left hand and an ankh (hieroglyph for ‘life’) is held in the right. There is also a tiny chip on the uraeus.
The ancient Nubians included shawabtys in their tombs only in the Napatan Period, about 750–270 B.C. These funerary figurines are based on Egyptian shawabtys, but differ from them in many features of their iconography. For instance, the known Nubian examples are only from royal tombs. Also, they have unique texts, implements, poses and are known to have the largest number of shawabtys included in one tomb. Their function, it is assumed, was the same as that of the Egyptian shawabty, namely to magically animate in the Afterlife in order to act as a proxy for the deceased when called upon to tend to field labor or other tasks. This expressed purpose was sometimes written on the shawabty itself in the form of a “Shawabty Spell,” of which versions of various lengths are known. Shorter shawabty inscriptions could also just identify the deceased by name and, when applicable, title(s). However, many shawabtys carry no text at all. The ideal number of such figurines to include in a tomb or burial seems to have varied during different time periods.
From Nubia (Sudan) Nuri, Pyramid 1 (Tomb of Taharqa), A I 6. 1917: excavated by the Harvard University–Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition; assigned to the MFA in the division of finds by the government of Sudan.
Harvard University—Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition