Shawabty of King Taharqa
Napatan Period, reign of Taharqa
Findspot: Nubia (Sudan), Nuri, Pyramid 1, A IV 1
Overall: 29.2 x 11 cm (11 1/2 x 4 5/16 in.)
Medium or Technique
Not On View
This is a shawabty of King Taharqa. The figure wears the king’s nemes headdress with uraeus and has a long beard. This mummiform shape does not have a back pillar or base. Note that in each hand the figure holds a hoe and a cord to a small bag slung over each shoulder rather than the implements of rulership, the flail on the right shoulder and the crook on the left which are moe common o the figures wearing the nemes headdress. The object was broken in two pieces and is not mended. There is large portion of the torso where the surface has sheeted off. There are four thin fragments that contain text. While three of these fragments join directly to the torso, all four pieces look similar and were found together and likely the fourth also joins the torso.
The ancient Nubians included shawabtys in their tombs only in the Napatan Period, about 750–270 B.C. These funerary figurines are based on Egyptian shawabtys, but differ from them in many features of their iconography. For instance, the known Nubian examples are only from royal tombs. Also, they have unique texts, implements, poses and are known to have the largest number of shawabtys included in one tomb. Their function, it is assumed, was the same as that of the Egyptian shawabty, namely to magically animate in the Afterlife in order to act as a proxy for the deceased when called upon to tend to field labor or other tasks. This expressed purpose was sometimes written on the shawabty itself in the form of a “Shawabty Spell,” of which versions of various lengths are known. Shorter shawabty inscriptions could also just identify the deceased by name and, when applicable, title(s). However, many shawabtys carry no text at all. The ideal number of such figurines to include in a tomb or burial seems to have varied during different time periods.
From Nubia (Sudan) Nuri, Pyramid 1 (Tomb of Taharqa) A IV 1. 1917: excavated by the Harvard University-Museum of Fine Arts Expedition; assigned to the MFA by the government of Sudan.
Harvard University—Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition