Shawabty of King Tanwetamani
Napatan Period, reign of Tanwetamani
Findspot: Nubia (Sudan), el-Kurru, Pyramid 11, enclosure of chapel
Overall: 7.4 cm (2 15/16 in.)
Medium or Technique
Not On View
This is a shawabty (type B) belonging to King Tanwetamani. The object is missing from waist down. The male figure wears a bag wig but no beard. The shawabty is uninscribed. This mummiform shape does have a back pillar. The arms are crossed and the hands are right over left. One hoe is held in the right hand resting on the left shoulder and the left hand holds a cord to a small bag slung over the right shoulder.
The ancient Nubians included shawabtys in their tombs only in the Napatan Period, about 750–270 B.C. These funerary figurines are based on Egyptian shawabtys, but differ from them in many features of their iconography. For instance, the known Nubian examples are only from royal tombs. Also, they have unique texts, implements, poses and are known to have the largest number of shawabtys included in one tomb. Their function, it is assumed, was the same as that of the Egyptian shawabty, namely to magically animate in the Afterlife in order to act as a proxy for the deceased when called upon to tend to field labor or other tasks. This expressed purpose was sometimes written on the shawabty itself in the form of a “Shawabty Spell,” of which versions of various lengths are known. Shorter shawabty inscriptions could also just identify the deceased by name and, when applicable, title(s). However, many shawabtys carry no text at all. The ideal number of such figurines to include in a tomb or burial seems to have varied during different time periods.
From el-Kurru, Ku. 11, enclosure of chapel, originally from Ku. 16 (tomb of Tanwetamani), debris. 1919: excavated by the Harvard University–Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition; assigned to the MFA in the division of finds by the government of the Sudan.
Harvard University—Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition