Mixing bowl (krater)

Italic, Etruscan
Late Classical to Early Hellenistic Period
about 330–300 B.C.
The Frontal Funnel Group Workshop

Catalogue Raisonné

Vase-Painting in Italy (MFA), no. 171.


Height: 38.5 cm (15 3/16 in.)

Accession Number


Medium or Technique

Ceramic, Red Figure

Not On View


The Ancient World



Attributed to the Frontal Funnel Group Workshop
(Del Chairo)
about 330-300 B.C.
A: A winged woman, probably Vanth, an Etruscan Fury, faces the front but looks back to her left. She wears a peplos with a white belt and carries a white torch in her left hand. Her face has an anxious expression. Added white highlights the drapery folds and feathers and is used to contour the upper part of the wing.

B: Winged woman. The costume and pose are nearly identical to those on side A, but reversed, with Vanth moving to her right. Unlike her counterpart on side A, she carries no torch.

The figures are set within simple panels framed by reserved lines. Above each handle is a large palmette pointing downward, and between these and the figure-panels are tympana (?) hanging from white fillets; the left one on side B lacks a fillet. A wreath of black laurel circles the vase below the rim. In the handle-zones of the cul are broad bands of vertical stripes and funnel-shaped tongues. The rim is decorated with vertical stripes, alternately short and long.

The shape and decorative scheme are entirely characteristic of the Funnel Group; compare Vatican Z 96, Z 97, and Z 98 (Trendall, Vasi antichi, II, pl. 64 a-f). Trendall calls the winged women on Z 96 (pl. 64, a and d) Nikes, and so they may be. The torch seen here on side A, however, is an unusual attribute for the Greek Nike and may identify the female as a Fury, as Del Chiaro proposed. The Etruscan Lasa is normally nude, Cristofani prefers to identify such figures as Vanth, an Etruscan adaptation of the Greek Fury. Compare the Vanth identified by inscription in a fresco in the François Tomb, at Vulci, who also wears a peplos (M.-F. Briguet, in L. Bonfante, ed., Etruscan Life and Afterlife [Detroit, 1986], p. 162, fig. IV-96). For Vanth, see E. Paschinger, JOAI 61 (1991/92), pp. 33-48.

Del Chiaro felt that the Funnel Groups worked at Tarqinia rather than Vulci, where they had previously been located. Jolivet (Recherches, pp. 72-76), followed by Christofani (in Martelli, Ceramica, no. 171), returns the majority of the Funnel Group workshops, including the one responsible for this vase, to Vulci.


By date unknown: Horace L. Mayer Collection; March 7, 1958: loaned to MFA by Horace L. Mayer (as 43.58); gift of Horace L. Mayer to MFA, December 11, 1958

Credit Line

Gift of Horace L. Mayer