Shawabty of King Taharqa
Napatan Period, reign of Taharqa
Findspot: Nubia (Sudan), Nuri, Pyramid 1, I E near door
Overall: 26.5 x 9.3 cm (10 7/16 x 3 11/16 in.)
Medium or Technique
Not On View
This is a shawabty belonging to King Taharqa. The figure wears a bulging bag (khat) headdress with uraeus and has a long beard. There are ten horizontal lines of incised unframed text on the front of body which do not extend to the back of the figure, recording a version of the “Shawabty Spell” for the king. Here the arms are crossed and the hands are right over left. In each hand the figure holds a hoe and a cord to a small bag slung over each shoulder. The seed bags are incised with diagonal crossed lines forming a diamond pattern. The hoe on the right has a narrow blade and the one on the left has a broad blade. This mummiform shape does not have a back pillar or base. There is a footmark on the bottom of the foot which is number one in Dunham’s typology for Taharqa, updated by Joyce Haynes (MFA, 2008). The object was broken in two pieces and is not mended. The left side of the shawabty is scuffed and battered. There is a long band of discoloration on the beard and left front side. There is also a large chip missing from the top left of the foot.
The ancient Nubians included shawabtys in their tombs only in the Napatan Period, about 750–270 B.C. These funerary figurines are based on Egyptian shawabtys, but differ from them in many features of their iconography. For instance, the known Nubian examples are only from royal tombs. Also, they have unique texts, implements, poses and are known to have the largest number of shawabtys included in one tomb. Their function, it is assumed, was the same as that of the Egyptian shawabty, namely to magically animate in the Afterlife in order to act as a proxy for the deceased when called upon to tend to field labor or other tasks. This expressed purpose was sometimes written on the shawabty itself in the form of a “Shawabty Spell,” of which versions of various lengths are known. Shorter shawabty inscriptions could also just identify the deceased by name and, when applicable, title(s). However, many shawabtys carry no text at all. The ideal number of such figurines to include in a tomb or burial seems to have varied during different time periods.
From Nubia (Sudan), Nuri, Pyramid 1 (Tomb of Taharqa) I E near door. 1917: excavated by the Harvard University–Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition; assigned to the MFA in the division of finds by the government of Sudan.
Harvard University—Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition