Shawabty of Queen Nefrukekashta
Napatan Period, reign of Piankhy (Piye)
Findspot: Nubia (Sudan), el-Kurru, Ku 52
Overall: 9.6 cm (3 3/4 in.)
Medium or Technique
Not On View
This is a shawabty belonging to Queen Nefrukekashta. The female figure wears a tripartite wig with uraeus. Usually the shawabtys of this queen have one unframed column of text painted in black on the front of the figure. When legible, the text reads “Osiris Nefrukekashta.” There is no visible text on this shawabty. This mummiform shape does not have a back pillar, wig line or base and there are finger imipressions on the back. No hands or implements are depicted.
The ancient Nubians included shawabtys in their tombs only in the Napatan Period, about 750–270 B.C. These funerary figurines are based on Egyptian shawabtys, but differ from them in many features of their iconography. For instance, the known Nubian examples are only from royal tombs. Also, they have unique texts, implements, poses and are known to have the largest number of shawabtys included in one tomb. Their function, it is assumed, was the same as that of the Egyptian shawabty, namely to magically animate in the Afterlife in order to act as a proxy for the deceased when called upon to tend to field labor or other tasks. This expressed purpose was sometimes written on the shawabty itself in the form of a “Shawabty Spell,” of which versions of various lengths are known. Shorter shawabty inscriptions could also just identify the deceased by name and, when applicable, title(s). However, many shawabtys carry no text at all. The ideal number of such figurines to include in a tomb or burial seems to have varied during different time periods.
From Nubia (Sudan) el-Kurru, Ku 52 (tomb of Queen Nefrukekashta). 1919: excavated by the Harvard University–Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition; assigned to the MFA in the division of finds by the government of Sudan.
Harvard University—Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition