Four thousand years ago, the kings of Egypt’s 12th Dynasty conquered a long stretch of the Nile south of their border. Reasons for the conquest included concern about a military threat from Kerma as well as a desire to dominate gold mining and trade in the region. To consolidate their control, the Egyptians built a string of monumental fortresses, all but two of which were lost after the construction of the Aswan High Dam. Delve into the nature and purpose of the fortresses and learn how recent archaeological work is changing our understanding of cultural interaction in this frontier zone.
Laurel Bestock, associate professor, Archaeology and Egyptology, Brown University